While the Proclamation claimed "that all persons held as slaves...are and henceforward shall be free," it did not truly free all enslaved people. The document outlawed slavery in the states of the Confederacy, but not loyal states.
The Supreme Court ruled that neither the 13th or 14th Amendments were violated by racial discrimination. This ended the Civil Rights Act of 1875, and stripped much of the meaning from the 2 amendments.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was founded by an interracial group that included W.E.B. Du Bois and Ida B. Wells. The NAACP focuses on protecting the rights of Black people.
The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was revived in Georgia by William J. Simmons. The original Klan was founded in 1866, but disappeared around 1870. This hate group is America's oldest terrorist group, and promotes racist violence.
The Great Migration refers to a period from the 1910s to 1970 in which many Black people moved from Southern states to the North, Midwest, and West. The first wave established many Black neighborhoods, including Harlem.
"Shuffle Along" was a musical by Eubie Blake and Noble Sissle. This was the first major Black hit musical to open on Broadway, and opened the door for other Black shows and the "Jazz Age" of the 1920s.
Opportunity magazine hosted a writing competition that was won by Langston Hughes for his poem "The Weary Blues." Following the prize, the New-York Herald Tribune said “what might not improperly be called a Negro renaissance” was happening in Harlem.
Contralto Marian Anderson gave a public concert for an audience of 75,000 people at the Lincoln Memorial. She was denied the use of Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution due to her skin color, prompting outrage.
Four Black college students in Greensboro, NC began the sit-in movement by refusing to leave a white-only lunch counter. The protests spread to other cities and after months facilities began to desegregate all across the country.
In 1961, groups of Black and white protestors rode on interstate buses to test the desegregation that was supposed to have taken effect. They were met with horrific violence and rampant racism. Eventually, bans on segregation were enforced more strongly.
The March of approximately 250,000 people in Washington, DC garnered massive international attention. At the rally, Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his now-famous "I Have a Dream" speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
This landmark civil rights law prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, sex, color, national origin, or religion. It particularly addressed discrimination in the workplace and in federal programs.